- 1 Spirulina And Chronic Fatigue
- 6 Chronic Arsenic Poisoning: A Randomized Trial
- 5 Anticancer Effects
- Spirulina In Clinical Practice: Evidence
- Spirulina Dietetyka
- 3 Antiviral Applications: In Vitro Studies
- Spirulina In Clinical Practice: Evidence
At the moment, what the literature suggests is that Spirulina is a safe food supplement without significant side-effects but its role as a drug remains to be seen. Millions of people in Bangladesh, India, Taiwan and Chile are consuming high concentration of arsenic through drinking water and are at risk of chronic arsenic poisoning for which there is no specific treatment. A placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of spirulina extract plus zinc in the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning . Forty-one patients with chronic arsenic poisoning were randomly treated by either placebo or spirulina extract plus zinc twice daily for 16 weeks. Each patient was supplied with arsenic-safe drinking water by installing a locally made water filter at household level. Effectiveness of spirulina extract plus zinc was evaluated by comparing changes in skin manifestations and arsenic contents in urine and hair, between the placebo- and spirulina extract plus zinc-treated groups.
This alga represents an important staple diet in humans and has been used as a source of protein and vitamin supplement in humans without any significant side-effects. Apart from the high (up to 70%) content of protein, it also contains vitamins, especially B12 and provitamin A (β-carotenes), and minerals, especially iron. Ramamoorthy and Premakumari in a more recent study administered Spirulina supplements in ischemic heart disease patients and found a significant reduction in blood cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol. More research is needed before Spirulina can be recommended to lower cholesterol levels but its role as a natural food supplement in combating hyperlipidaemia, in combination with other therapeutic options, should not be overlooked. There are no in vivo studies providing strong evidence supporting the possible antiviral properties of Spirulina. According to Hayashi et al. , Ca-Sp inhibits the in vitro replication of several enveloped viruses including Herpes simplex type I, human cytomegalovirus, measles and mumps virus, influenza A virus and human immunodeficiency virus-1 virus (HIV-1).
1 Spirulina And Chronic Fatigue
It has been argued that the combined antioxidant and immune modulation characteristics of Spirulina may have a possible mechanism of tumor destruction and hence play a role in cancer prevention. Whilst there are many animal and in vitro studies, there has been only one trial with human subjects. This study looked specifically at the effects of Spirulina on oral carcinogenesis, in particular leukoplakia . It is not surprising that few human studies exist to date as cancer prevention trials with lower cancer incidence as an endpoint have logistic problems, rendering them essentially impossible to conduct for most malignancies. The study conducted by Mathew et al. on a cohort of 77 patients originates from previous trials on hamsters that showed tumor regression after topical application or enteral intake of Spirulina extract [21–23]. They reported that 45% of their study cohort showed complete regression of leukoplakia after taking Spirulina supplements for 1 year.
6 Chronic Arsenic Poisoning: A Randomized Trial
Spirulina is a microscopic and filamentous cyanobacterium that derives its name from the spiral or helical nature of its filaments. It has a long history of use as food and it has been reported that Les personnes âgées et les enfants peuvent-ils manger des oursons CBD ? it has been used during the Aztec civilization . Spirulina refers to the dried biomass of Arthrospira platensis, an oxygenic photosynthetic bacterium found worldwide in fresh and marine waters.
5 Anticancer Effects
It is believed that the anticancer effects of Spirulina are perhaps derived from β-carotene, a known antioxidant; however, the link between β-carotene level and carcinogenesis cannot be established as the etiology of carcinoma is frequently multifactorial . There are some positive Ab welcher Dosierung von CBD tritt eine Wirkung ein und wie lange hält diese an? studies on the cholesterol-lowering effects of Spirulina but larger studies are required before any definitive conclusions can be made. Finally, there are no high-level evidence trials on the role played by Spirulina in chronic fatigue and in antiviral applications.
Spirulina In Clinical Practice: Evidence
The above studies suggest that Spirulina may modulate the immune system by its role in covering nutritional deficiencies. Schwartz J, Shklar G, Reid S, Trickler D. Prevention of experimental oral cancer by extracts of Spirulina-Dunaliella algae. Shklar G, Schwartz J. Tumor necrosis factor in experimental cancer regression with alphatocopherol, Do Vegan CBD Gummies help with anxiety? beta-carotene, canthaxanthin and algae extract. Ishii et al. studied the influence of Spirulina on IgA levels in human saliva and demonstrated that it enhances IgA production, suggesting a pivotal role of microalga in mucosal immunity. Cingi C, Conk-Dalay M, Cakli H, Bal C. The effects of spirulina on allergic rhinitis.
Cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of death in developed countries, despite increased CBD + THC Gummies awareness, and high cholesterol is one of the most important risk factors in atherosclerosis.
3 Antiviral Applications: In Vitro Studies
C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is one of the major biliproteins of Spirulina with antioxidant and radical scavenging properties. C-PC, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, induces apoptosis in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. To date though, there are no in vivo human studies on possible antioxidant effects of Spirulina. It is well understood that deficiency of nutrients is responsible for changes in immunity, which manifests as changes in production of T-cells, secretory IgA antibody response, cytokines and NK-cell activity.
In a recent randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial , individuals with allergic rhinitis were fed daily, either with placebo or Spirulina for 12 weeks. The study showed that high dose of Spirulina significantly reduced IL-4 levels by 32%, demonstrating the protective effects of this microalga toward allergic rhinitis. A Japanese team identified the molecular mechanism of the human immune capacity of Spirulina by analysing blood cells of volunteers with pre- and post-oral administration Cecilia of hot water extract of Spirulina platensis. IFN-γ production and Natural Killer cell damage were increased after administration of the microalga extracts to male volunteers . Platensis inhibited HIV-1 replication in human T-cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Langerhan cells . The advantage of using herbs and algal products with proven antiviral properties in fighting certain viruses is that they can be used—through immunomodulation—even when the infection is established.
Malila N, Virtamo J, Virtanen M, Pietinen P, Albanes D, Teppo L. Dietary and serum alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene and retinol, and risk for colorectal cancer in male smokers. Mani UV, Desai S, Iyer U. Studies on the long-term effect of Spirulina supplementation on serum lipid profile and glycated proteins in NIDDM patients. Ramamoorthy A, Premakumari S. Effect of supplementation of Spirulina on hypercholesterolemic patients. Long-term supplementation with alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene and prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in smokers.
Spirulina has been promoted as “the food of the future” with “exceptional constituents” that contribute to high energy levels. A few of these constituents such as polysaccharides and essential fat are absorbed easily by human cells and help in energy release. Spirulina increases healthy lactobacillus in the intestine, enabling the production of Vitamin B6 that also helps What are Delta-10 gummies? in energy release. Despite this promotion, the only available placebo-controlled randomized trial showed that the scores of fatigue were not significantly different between spirulina and placebo. Spirulina administered at a dose of 3 g day−1 did not ameliorate fatigue more than the placebo in any of the four subjects and possibly it has no effect on chronic fatigue .
Belay A. The potential application of Spirulina as a nutritional and therapeutic supplement in Health management. Of course, the above promising effects need to be studied further in animal models and humans before any definitive conclusions are drawn. It has been well documented that Spirulina exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine from mast cells . Ayehunie S, Belay A, Baba TW, Ruprecht RM. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by an aqueous extract of Spirulina platensis .
Schwartz J, Shklar G. Regression of experimental hamster cancer by beta carotene and algae extracts. Mao TK, van de Water J, Gershwin ME. Effects of a Spirulina-based dietary supplement on cytokine production from allergic rhinitis patients. Baicus C, Baicus A. Spirulina did not ameliorate idiopathic chronic fatigue in four N-of-1 randomized controlled trials.
The authors also reported that there was no rise in the serum concentration of retinal β-carotene despite supplementation and concluded that other constituents within Spirulina may have been responsible for the anticancer effects. Whilst their results appear promising, it was an unblinded, non-randomized trial and as such cannot be regarded as evidence of a positive effect. Spirulina or Arthrospira is a blue-green alga that became famous after it was successfully used CBD for Dogs by NASA as a dietary supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to modulate immune functions and exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting the release of histamine by mast cells. Current and potential clinical applications, issues of safety, indications, side-effects and levels of evidence are addressed in this review. The positive effects of Spirulina in allergic rhinitis are based on adequate evidence but larger trials are required.
Results showed that spirulina extract plus zinc twice daily for 16 weeks may be useful for the treatment of chronic arsenic poisoning with melanosis and keratosis. Spirulina now belongs to the substances that are listed by the US Food and Drug Administration under the category Generally Recognized as Safe [2–6]. Spirulina is relatively easy to cultivate but flourishes only in alkaline lakes with an extremely high pH and in large outdoor ponds under controlled conditions. There are only a few areas worldwide that have the ideal sunny climate for production of this alga, including Greece , Japan, India, United States and Spain. Currently, Spirulina can be found in health food stores and is sold mainly as a dietary supplement in the form of health drinks or tablets. Microalgae have been used for more than 10 years as dietary supplements without significant side-effects .